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Nabin Girls

We are the Nabin Girls.Our group consist five people; Feeqah, Maryam, Syirah ,Ida and Lyn.We've decided to do research on The Arabic and Javanese Arts and Culture. So we went to Arab Street to take pictures that resemble this two culture.

Javanese Arts and Culture; Defination of Javanese

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By Beauty and Spa management · December 4, 2010

Java (Indonesian: Jawa) is an island of Indonesia. With a population of 136 million, it is the world's most populous island, and one of the most densely populated regions in the world. It is home to 60% of Indonesia's population. The Indonesian capital city, Jakarta, is in west Java. Much of Indonesian history took place on Java; it was the center of powerful Hindu-Buddhist empires, Islamic sultanates, the core of the colonial Dutch East Indies, and was at the center of Indonesia's campaign for independence. The island dominates Indonesian social, political and economic life.

Formed mostly as the result of volcanic events, Java is the 13th largest island in the world and the fifth largest island in Indonesia. A chain of volcanic mountains forms an east-west spine along the island. It has three main languages, though Javanese is dominant and is the native language of 60 million people in Indonesia, most of whom live on Java. Most residents are bilingual, with Indonesian as their first or second language. While the majority of the people of Java are Muslim, Java has a diverse mixture of religious beliefs, ethnicities and cultures.

The island is divided into four provinces, West Java, Central Java, East Java, and Banten, and two special districts, Jakarta and Yogyakarta.


Javanese Arts annd Culture;HERITAGE OF JAVANESE

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By Beauty and Spa management · December 4, 2010

B a t i k   

To distinguish the differences in rank between various members of the sultans' families and high officials, ordinances were passed periodically at the courts of Yogyakarta and Surakarta listing batik patterns which could be worn only by members of certain status and relationship to the sultan. Commoners were expressly FORBIDDEN to wear these designs. By decress of 1769, 1784 and 1790, the Sultan of Surakarta reserved for himself and his close relatives the following designs :

4. "Cemukiran" leaf pattern bordering the plain centre field of a head or breast cloth.

The occasion on which the batik was worn or used, in connection with the meaning and hope or wish symbolized by the motif.

 


M a s k

There are numerous characters presented in Ramayana story. Rama is a symbol of wisdom, Sita is for Loyalty and Purity. Laksamana symbolizes good friendship.

Hanoman strictly holds the value of bravery. On the other hand, Rahwana is the symbol of anger.

Deep thinking about the philosophic and good value of the story are actually the moral of The Ramayana epic.

 

 

Borobudur

Borobudur is a 9th-century Mahayana Buddhist monument near Magelang, Central Java, Indonesia. The monument comprises six square platforms topped by three circular platforms, and is decorated with 2,672 relief panels and 504 Buddha statues. A main dome, located at the center of the top platform, is surrounded by 72 Buddha statues seated inside perforated stupa.

The monument is both a shrine to the Lord Buddha and a place for Buddhist pilgrimage. The journey for pilgrims begins at the base of the monument and follows a path circumambulating the monument while ascending to the top through the three levels of Buddhist cosmology, namely Kāmadhātu (the world of desire), Rupadhatu (the world of forms) and Arupadhatu (the world of formlessness). During the journey the monument guides the pilgrims through a system of stairways and corridors with 1,460 narrative relief panels on the wall and the balustrades.

Evidence suggests Borobudur was abandoned following the 14th-century decline of Buddhist and Hindu kingdoms in Java, and the Javanese conversion to Islam. Worldwide knowledge of its existence was sparked in 1814 by Sir Thomas Stamford Raffles, then the British ruler of Java, who was advised of its location by native Indonesians. Borobudur has since been preserved through several restorations.

 

 

 

DAKON

Is very much favored by children, mostly girls, in Indonesia. It is a typically Javanese games which is played when girls come together to have fun. They get really excited all through the game, smarting each other in the process.


Javanese Arts and Culture;Javanese Language

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By Beauty and Spa management · December 4, 2010

Javanese language (bahasa Jawa) is the language of the people in the central and eastern parts of the island of Java, in Indonesia. In addition, there are also some pockets of Javanese speakers in the northern coast of western Java. It is the native language of more than 75,500,000 people.

The Javanese language is part of the Austronesian family, and is therefore related to Indonesian and other Malay varieties. Many speakers of Javanese also speak Indonesian for official and commercial purposes and to communicate with non-Javanese Indonesians.

Outside Indonesia, there are some Javanese-speaking people in neighboring countries such as Malaysia and Singapore. In addition there are also people of Javanese descent in Suriname (the former Dutch Guiana until 1975), who speaks a creol descendant of the language. The Javanese speakers in Malaysia are especially found in the states of Selangor and Johor. For distribution in other parts, as far as Suriname .

Javanese alphabet   Javanese (Huruf Jawa)

The earliest known writing in Javanese dates from the 4th Century AD, at which time Javanese was written with the Pallava alphabet. By the 10th Century, the Kawi alphabet, which developed from Pallava, had a distinct Javanese form.

By the 17th Century, the Javanese alphabet, also known as tjarakan or carakan, had developed into its current form. During the Japanese occupation of Indonesia between 1942 and 1945, the alphabet was prohibited.

For a period from the 15th Century onwards, Javanese was also written with a version of the Arabic alphabet, called pégon or gundil.

Since the Dutch introduced the Latin alphabet to Indonesia in the 19th Century, the Javanese alphabet has gradually been supplanted. Today it is used almost exclusively by scholars and for decoration. Those who can read and write it are held in high esteem.

Notable features

  • Javanese is a syllabic alphabet - each letter has an inherent vowel /a/. Other vowels can be indicated using a variety of diacritics which appear above, below, in front of or after the main letter.
  • Each consonants has two forms: the aksara form is used at the beginning of a syllable, while the pasangan form, which usually appears below the aksara form, is used for the second consonant of a consonant cluster and mutes the vowel of the aksara.
  • There are a number of special letters called aksara murda or aksara gedhe (great or important letters) which are used for honorific purposes, such as to write the names of respected people.
  • The order of the consonants makes the following saying, "Hana caraka, data sawala padha jayanya, maga bathanga" which means "There were (two) emissaries, they began to fight, their valor was equal, they both fell dead"

 

Sample text in the Javanese alphabet (Lord's Prayer)

Transliteration

Rama kahula hīkā wonten 'ī swarga. wasta sampeyan dadossa subši. sadžaman sampeyan rawuḥha. kars sampeyan dadossa 'ī bumi kados 'ī swarga. redžekki kahula kā saintendinten sukanni dinten puniki marī kahula. hambi puntan marī kahula dosa kahula, kados kahula puntan marī satungiltūgil titiyū kā salaḥ marī kahula. hambi sampun bekta kahula 'ī pertšoban. tapi tšutšullken kahula bari pada sā ṅawon, sabab sadžaman hambi kawasa sarta kamukten gusti kagū ṅannipun dumugi 'ī ṅawet. Amin

 

Javanese pronounciation

 

Sample text in Javanese

Saben uwong kalairake kanthi mardika lan darbe martabat lan hak-hak kang padha. Kabeh pinaringan akal lan kalbu sarta kaajab pasrawungan anggone memitran siji lan sijine kanthi jiwo sumadulur.

Translation

All human beings are born free and equal in dignity and rights. They are endowed with reason and conscience and should act towards one another in a spirit of brotherhood.
(Article 1 of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights)


Javanese Arts and Culture; Traditional Costume

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By Beauty and Spa management · December 4, 2010

Traditional Costume

For both men and women, traditional dress in Indonesia includes a wrap-around lower-body cover—a kain (a rectangular length of fabric, generally in batik) or a sarong (a length of fabric with ends sewn together, more often in ikat). Women in Java and Bali wear sarongs and kain, held in place with a stagen, a narrow sash. The kebaya is a tight, often sheer, long-sleeved blouse worn on the upper body. It is often made of lace, but can also be made of lightweight, sheer, elaborately embroidered cottons.

 In addition, women generally have a large rectangle of cloth called a selendang (ikat or batik) draped over the shoulder (on less formal occasions a large selendang is used to carry babies or objects); on Bali the pelangi (a sash) is worn over the kebaya around the waist when going to temple.

Indonesian men generally wear kain or sarongs only in the home or on informal occasions. A black felt cap, or peci, is occasionally worn too. Kebaya and batik kain are Javanese traditional costume for women, and teluk beskap, a combination of th jacket and kain are Javanese traditional costume Indonesian men.

                                           

Now there are so many types of kebaya and it is more modernise. But they still have their sarong or kain that usually is made of batiks. Here are some of the kebaya.

Javanese Arts & Culture; Cuisine

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By Beauty and Spa management · December 4, 2010

 

(Javanese complete Nasi Gudeg, which consist of Gudeg (young jackfruit cooked in coconut milk), fried chicken, boiled egg also in coconut milk, and krecek (buffalo skin cracker dipped in spice). Gudeg is one of the most famous Javanese dish.)

 

Javanese cuisine is the cuisine of Javanese people. In wider sense, Javanese cuisine might also refer to the cuisine of the whole people of JavaIsland, Indonesia; which also include Sundanese in West Java, Betawi people in Jakarta and Madurese on Madura Island off East Java. These ethnic groups have their own distinctive cuisines.

Javanese cuisine is largely divided into three major groups:

  • Central Javanese cuisine (masakan Jawa Tengah)
  • East Javanese cuisine (masakan Jawa Timur)
  • Common Javanese dishes

 

There are similarities in the cuisines but the main differences lie in the flavors. Central Javanese cuisine is sweeter and less spicy, while East Javanese cuisine uses less sugar and more chili, possibly influenced by Madurese cuisine.

Rice is the common staple food, and served with every meal.

 

Central Javanese cuisine

The food in Central Java is influenced by the two ancient kingdoms of Yogyakarta andSurakarta (also commonly known as Solo). Many of Central Java-specific dishes contain the names of the area where the food first became popular. For example:

  • Gudeg Yogya: Young jackfruit, chicken and hardboiled egg stew, this dish has a unique sweet and savoury taste. This is usually accompanied by a side dish of spicy beef inner skin & tofu stew.
  • Bakso Solo: Bakso literally means meatballs, made of beef, and served in boiling hot soup with mung bean-thread noodles, green vegetables, shredded cabbage, and various sauces (chili, tomato). This version from Solo has super-sized meatballs, the size of tennis balls. Also known as Bakso Tenis. Bakso is a Chinese-influenced dish, but has become a popular snack throughout Indonesia.

 

East Javanese cuisine

The East Javanese cuisine is largely influenced by Madurese cuisine - Madura being a major producer of salt, hence the omission of sugar in many dishes. Many of the East Javanese dishes are also typically Madurese, such as Soto Madura and Sate Madura, usually sold by Madurese settlers.

Although there are many dishes with town names attached to them, local versions of these are available in every town. The most popular town-associated dishes are:

  • Pecel Madiun: A salad of boiled vegetables, dressed in a peanut-based spicy sauce. It is usually served as an accompaniment to rice. A peanut or dried fish/shrimp cracker (rempeyek) is served on the side. Not to be confused with pecel lele, which is deep-fried local catfish served with sambal.
  • Soto Madura: A turmeric-based beef and offal soup, served with boiled egg, and sambal.
  • Sate Madura: Chicken satay.

 

Common Javanese dishes

These are the common Javanese dishes, which can be found throughout Java regardless of the location.

  • Tumpeng: Cone shaped rice surrounded by assortment of dishes.
  • Sayur Asem: Vegetables in tamarind-flavored soup. Can be served hot or cold.
  • Sayur Lodeh: assorted vegetable, stewed in coconut milk.
  • Pepes: Meat, chicken, or freshwater fish/seafood mixed with a spice paste, wrapped in banana leaf, then steamed or grilled.
  • Tumis sayuran: Stir-fried vegetables, usually mixed with chili and a spice paste.

 

Javanese Arts and Culture; Arts

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By Beauty and Spa management · December 4, 2010

Javanese Arts

The Art of Wayang

Wayang performance has been entrenched in the Javanese culture since the age of ancient Mataram in middle Java in 9th - 10th centuries. In Indonesian, wayang performance was known the term ringgit. The Indonesian listen carefully that wayang originated from Java. It is used terms of Java as the implement of wayang performance, such as Kelir (screen), Blencong (lamp), Kecrek, and etc.

There are various of wayang, such as wayang gedhog is wayang which show stories from Panji Romances; wayang wong is wayang where the actors and actress are human being; wayang kulit is the variety of wayang which has made from leather.

Wayang kulit performance wanted for some implements, such as kerawitan group (sinden, a singers in kerawitan, and pengrawit, gamelan player in kerawitan); dalang; puppets; audiences; and etc. The implements of wayang performance have the symbol of life. Man have to balanced to the nature and created the peacefulness. For example, in gendhing gamelan, the players have to created blended harmoniously with another variety of instrument. It could not be dominated.

Wayang performance is the medium to invite the spirit of the anchestors. Wayang performance could not separated with some ritual ceremonie, like khitanan, merti desa, and etc. Wayang kulit purwa was presented to celebrate the Sultan's birthday every 35 days by combining the seven day week and pasaran, the five day week according to Javanese calendar.

Performance of wayang kulit purwa presenting stories from the epics, such as  Mahabharata, Ramayana, Arjuna Sasrabahu, etc.  Sometimes the myth always related to specific royal event, but the stories have been recreated and adapted to match the Javanese tradition.

The Art of Kuda Kepang

Kuda Kepang dance predominate obvious Jawa background, in accordance with his history which states that it hails from Jawa Timur. Dancer dance use kuda kepang is made from bamboo plait. In early, weave horse produced use pandan leaf but now were those is made from plywood or cowhide. It usually coloured black with coloured hackles yellow.

Member of a group usually containing between 15 to 20 player including musician namely nine from that groups is dancer, five musician while the rest is “danyang”. Call “Danyang” mean keeper or kuda kepang shepherd which uses whip to control motion horseman dance and behaviour its namely the dancer.

Its dance follow music and period tempo dependent presentation to that ceremony. Sometimes its period may be shorten 10 minutes or 40 minutes as wedding ceremony cheer. To busk also no could be made by reckless because got a couple of things must be obeyed before starting presentation of security purposes.

Before begins the wedding ceremony, it its need host provide nine type “sajen” in Jawa reference or offering which purports food or red cake and porridge white given specific to dancer only.However old days, material prepared so many including white cloth, thread, needle, canangium flower, young coconut, incense, gold banana, chicken eggs, operate, perfume and money.

Before starting presentation, court are opened by medicine man or chief by setting fire incense and offering material. Then new invited flying steed soul came together succeed game would be performed. .In this spell for apply the genie called “Jaran Brazen” fall to earth and protect those got involved with this game then seeped into body and musical instrument.

Unconscious condition or “forget” happened not long after game started. Dancer angry will separated of his group. Their well off eye in this situation dazzling, cannot speak, while they movement and behaviour similar to horse on angry.During dancer in that state, music that accompanied this dance will be more vigorous. Ostensibly if tonality no lively then dancer will become disgruntled and will pounce or kick music player. If increased state wild, Tok Bomoh will direct guard catch and topple they to earth, further incantation to be restored again as usual.

The fact is, a person situation the dancer depends on spiritual strength also intention or self determination. Other factors was creature which absorbs in body called or urged through spell incantation network being talked by medicine man who leads group, incense censer, offering foods, also drumbeat and gong beat.

The Art of Barongan

Legend has it that the Barongan is a mystical creature which was once a man.The man turned into a Barongan because a spell had been cast upon him by faireis whom he teased to amuse himself. The Barongan was ordered to follow the Kuda Kepang forevermore, which is why the Kuda Kepang dance is always followed by a Barongan performance today.

The Art of Ceremonial Mask

                                                        

Topeng is an Indonesian form of dance drama in which one or more dancers wear masks and perform ancient stories, often concerning ancient or mythical kings and heroes. The word "topeng" means mask in Indonesian. The dance is accompanied by gamelan music.

It is believed that the use of masks is related to the cult of the ancestors, which considered dancers the interpreters of the gods. Topeng performances open with a series of non-speaking, dancing masked characters that may not be related to the story that will be performed. These traditional masks often include "Topeng Manis" (a refined hero), Topeng Kras (a martial, authoritarian character), and Topeng Tua (an old man who may make jokes and draw the audience out).

The actual story is told by a narrator wearing a half-mask, thus enabling the actor to speak, called Penasar. In group topeng, there are usually two penasars providing two different points of view. The performance of the story alternates between speaking and non-speaking characters and may include dance sections, fights and special effects (sometimes provided by the gamelan orchestra), and it is almost always wrapped up by a series of comic characters introducing their own views. The narrators and comic characters frequently break the conventions of storytelling by including current events or local gossip to get a laugh.

                                                     

 Even today on predominantly Muslim Java, the high, cold, Dieng Plateau is a scared place and in the villages trance dances are performed with a variety of animal masks. The mask (topeng) is held over a fire to draw the spirit of the animal into it and to bring the dancer under it's power. The barongan masks shown above represent orge-type characters.Court dramas are more formalized and usually celebrate the lives and exploits of the Javanese royalty. Masks from these dramas are the kind most frequently seen today in museum collections and in the palace collections of the Kratons in Yogyakarta and Surakarta (Solo). Informal versions of these place stories and others of Hindu origin such as episodes from the Ramayana and Mahabharata, are performed by traveling troupes in the Javanese countryside. The masks are relatively simple in the Javanese tradition of emphasizing restraint.

Javanese masks from the villages are exuberant and strong. These masks are usually painted with ordinary paint, rather than laqcuered. Horsehair is used for mustaches and beards, glass or mirrors may be used for eyes, tire rubber may form ears or straps. Masks which have been used for awhile will acquire a dark patina on the inside, even if the front has been repainted.

Javanese Arts & Culture; Entertainment (Wayang Kulit)

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By Beauty and Spa management · December 4, 2010

Wayang

Wayang is an Indonesian word for theatre (literally "shadow"). When the term is used to refer to kinds of puppet theater, sometimes the puppet itself is referred to as wayang. Performances of shadow puppet theater are accompanied by gamelan in Java, and by "gender wayang" in Bali.

UNESCO designated Wayang Kulit, a shadow puppet theater and the best known of the Indonesian wayang, as a Masterpiece of Oral and Intangible Heritage of Humanity on 7 November 2003. In return of the acknowledgment, UNESCO demanded Indonesia to preserve their heritage. Javanese Wayang Kulit (shadow puppet) performance by an Indonesian famous dalang (puppet master) Ki Manteb Sudharsono, usually took place a whole night long.)

Wayang kulit

Wayang kulit, shadow puppets prevalent in Java and Bali in Indonesia, are without a doubt the best known of the Indonesian wayang. Kulit means skin, and refers to the leather construction of the puppets that are carefully chiseled with very fine tools and supported with carefully shaped buffalo horn handles and control rods.

The stories are usually drawn from the Ramayana, the Mahabharata or theSerat Menak.

(Wayang Kulit (shadow puppet) in Wayang Purwa type, depicting five Pandava, from left to right: Bhima, Arjuna,Yudhishtira, Nakula, and Sahadeva, Indonesia Museum, Jakarta.)

Wayang wong and wayang topeng or wayang gedog

Wayang wong also known as Wayang orang (literally human wayang) is a type of Javanese dance theatrical performance with themes taken from episode of Ramayana or Mahabharata.

While wayang gedog usually the theatrical performance that took the themes from the Panji cycles stories from the kingdom of Janggala, in which the players wear masks known as wayang topeng orwayang gedog. The word "gedog" comes from "kedok", which, like"topeng" means "mask". The main theme is the story of Raden Panji and Candra. This is a love story about princess Candra Kirana of Kediri and Raden Panji Asmarabangun, the crown prince of Jenggala. Candra Kirana was the incarnation of Dewi Ratih (goddess of love) and Panji was an incarnation of Kamajaya (god of love). Kirana's story was given the title "Smaradahana" ("The fire of love"). At the end of the complicated story they finally can marry and bring forth a son, named Raja Putra. Panji Asmarabangun ruled Jenggala under the official names "Sri Kameswara", "Prabu Suryowiseso", and "Hino Kertapati". Originally, wayang wong was performed only as an aristocratic entertainment in four palaces of Yogyakarta and Surakarta. In the course of time, it spread to become a popular and folk form as well.

Wayang wong has fixed patterns of movement and costume:

For male performers:

  • Alus: very slow, elegant and smooth movement. For example, the dance of Arjuna, Puntadewa and all other refined and slimly builtKshatriyas. There are two types of movement, lanyap and luruh.
  • Gagah: a more masculine and powerful dance movement, used commonly for the roles of strongly built kshatriyas, soldiers and generals.
    • Kambeng: a more powerful and athletic dance, used for the roles of Bima, Antareja, and Ghatotkacha.
    • Bapanggagah and kasar for the warriors of antagonist roles such as Kaurawa.
    • Kalang kinantang: falls somewhere between alus and gagah, danced by tall, slim dancers in the roles of Kresno or Suteja.
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  • Kasar: a coarse style, used in portraying evil characters such as Rakshasa, ogres and demons.
  • Gecul: a funny court jester and commoners, portraying ponokawan and cantrik
    • Kambeng dengklik: for ape warriors, such as Hanuman.
    • Kalang kinantang dengklik: for ape warriors, such as Sugriwa and Subali.
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For female performers: Kshatriya noblemen. Costumes and props distinguish kings, kshatriyas, monks, princesses, The movements known as nggruda or ngenceng encot in the classical high style of dance consist of nine basic movements (joged pokok) and twelve other movements (joged gubahan and joged wirogo) and are used in portraying Bedoyo and Srimpi.

Today, the wayang wong, following the Gagrak style of Surakarta, is danced by women. They follow the alus movements associated with a Kshatriya, resembling Arjuna. Following the Gagkra style from Yogyakarta a male dancer uses these same Alus movements to depict princes and generals. There are about 45 distinct character types.

( Pandava and Krishna in an act of the wayang wong performance.)

Wayang golek (rod puppets)

Wayang golek are wooden doll puppets that are operated from below by rods connected to the hands and a central control rod that runs through the body to the head. The simple construction of the puppets belies their versatility, expressiveness and aptitude for imitating human dance. Little is known for certain about the history of wayang golek, but scholars have speculated that it most likely originated in China and arrived in Java sometime in the 17th century. Some of the oldest traditions of wayang golek are from the north coast of Java in what is called the pasisir region. This is home to some of the oldest Muslim kingdoms in Java and it is likely the wayang golek grew in popularity through telling the wayang menak stories of Amir Hamza, the uncle of Muhammad. These stories are still widely performed in Kabumen, Tegal, and Jepara as wayang golek menak, and in Cirebon, wayang golek cepak. Legendary origins of wayang golek attribute their invention to the Muslim saint Wali Sunan Kudus, who used the medium to proselytize Muslim values. In the 18th century the tradition moved into the mountains of West Java where it eventually was used to tell stories of the Ramayana and the Mahabarata in a tradition now called wayang golek purwa, which can be found in Bandung, Bogor and Jakarta. Wayang golek purwa has become the most popular form of wayang golek today and the most famous puppeteer family is the Sunarya family which has produced several generations of stellar performers.


(A pair of wayang golek from West Java)

 

Wayang karucil or wayang klitik

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Wayang klitik figures come originally from eastern Java, where one still finds workshops turning them out. They are less costly to produce than wayang kulit figures

The origin of the stories involved in these puppet plays comes from the kingdoms of eastern Java: Jenggala, Kediri and Majapahit. From Jenggala and Kediri come the stories of Raden Panji and Cindelaras, which tells of the adventures of a pair of village youngsters with their fighting cocks. The Damarwulan presents the stories of a hero (Damarwulan) from Majapahit. Damarwulan is a clever chap, who with courage, aptitude, intelligence and the assistance of his young lover Anjasmara, makes a surprise attack on the neighboring kingdom and brings down Minakjinggo, an Adipati(viceroy) of Blambangan and mighty enemy of Majapahit's beautiful queen Sri Ratu Kencanawungu. As a reward, Damarwulan is married to Kencanawungu and becomes king of Majapahit; he also takes Lady Anjasmara as a second wife. This story is full of love affairs and battles and is very popular with the public. The dalang is liable to incorporate the latest local gossip and quarrels and work them into the play as comedy.

 


 

(Wayang klitik image of Batara Guru)

Wayang beber

The wayang beber has strong similarities to narratives in the form ofillustrated ballads that were common at annual fairs in medieval and early modern Europe. They have also been subject to the same fate—they have nearly vanished. Chinese visitors to Java during the 15th century described a storyteller or unrolled scrolls and told stories that made the audience laugh or cry. A few scrolls of images remain from those times, found today in museums. There are two sets, hand-painted on hand-made bark cloth, that are still owned by families who have inherited them from many generations ago, in Pacitan and Wonogiri, both villages in Central Java. Performances, mostly in small open-sided pavilions or auditoriums, take place according to the following pattern:

The dhalang (puppeteer, narrator) gives a sign, the small gamelan orchestra with drummer and a few knobbed gongs and a musician with a rebab (violin-like instrument held vertically) begins to play and the dhalang unrolls the first scroll of the story. Then, speaking and singing, he narrates the episode in more detail. In this manner, in the course of the evening he unrolls several scrolls one at a time. Each scene in the scrolls represents a story or part of a story. The content of the story typically stems from the Panji romances which are semi-historical legends set in the 12th-13th century East Javanese kingdoms of Jenggala, Daha and Kedhiri, and also in Bali.

(Wayang painting depiction of Bharatayudha battle)


 

Javanese Arts & Culture; Entertainment (Music)

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By Beauty and Spa management · December 4, 2010

Gamelan

Traditional indonesian instruments04.jpg

gamelan is a musical ensemble from Indonesia, typically from the islands of Bali orJava, featuring a variety of instruments such as metallophones, xylophones, drums andgongs; bamboo flutes, bowed and plucked strings. Vocalists may also be included.

The term refers more to the set of instruments than to the players of those instruments. A gamelan is a set of instruments as a distinct entity, built and tuned to stay together — instruments from different gamelan are generally not interchangeable.

The word gamelan comes from the Javanese word gamels, meaning "to strike or hammer", and the suffix an, which makes the root a collective noun.

Varieties of gamelan ensembles

Varying forms of gamelan ensembles are distinguished by their collection of instruments and use of voice, tunings, repertoire, style, and cultural context. In general, no two gamelan ensembles are the same, and those that arose in prestigious courts are often considered to have their own style. Certain styles may also be shared by nearby ensembles, leading to a regional style.

The varieties are generally grouped geographically, with the principal division between the styles favored by the Balinese, Javanese, and Sundanese peoples. Sundanese gamelan is often associated with Gamelan Degung, a Sundanese musical ensemble that utilises a subset of modified gamelan instruments with a particular mode of pelog scale. Balinese gamelan is often associated with the virtuosity and rapid changes of tempo and dynamics ofGamelan gong kebyar, its best-known style. Other popular Balinese styles include Gamelan[clarification needed] and kecak, also known as the "monkey chant." Javanese gamelan was largely dominated by the courts of the 19th century central Javanese rulers, each with its own style, but overall is known for a slower, more meditative style than that of Bali.

Outside of the main core on Java and Bali, gamelans have spread through migration and cultural interest, new styles sometimes resulting as well. Malay gamelans are designed in ways that are similar to the Javanese gamelan except they lack most of the elaborating instruments and are tuned in a near-equidistant slendro, often using a western Bb or C as a tuning basis. Javanese emigrants to Suriname play gamelan in a style close to that found in Central Javanese villages. Gamelan is also related to the Filipino kulintang ensemble. There is also a wide variety of gamelan in the West, including both traditional and experimental ensembles.

Sundanese Gamelan Degung.

The all-bamboo Gamelan jegog from Bali

Javanese gamelan played also in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia

Tuning

The tuning and construction of a gamelan orchestra is a complex process. Javanese gamelans use two tuning systems: sléndro and pélog. There are other tuning systems such as degung (exclusive to Sunda, or West Java), and madenda (also known as diatonis, similar to a European natural minor scale). In central Javanese gamelan, sléndro is a system with five notes to the diapason (octave), fairly evenly spaced, while pélog has seven notes to the octave, with uneven intervals, usually played in five note subsets of the seven-tone collection. This results in sound quite different from music played in a western tuning system. Many gamelan orchestras will include instruments in each tuning, but each individual instrument will only be able to play notes in one. The precise tuning used differs from ensemble to ensemble, and give each ensemble its own particular flavour. The intervals between notes in a scale are very close to identical for different instruments within each gamelan, but the intervals vary from one gamelan to the next.

Celempung — Indonesian Embassy inCanberra.

Instruments

  • Kethuk

  • Kenong

  • Kendhang

 

 

Kempul

Gender

Gambang

Demung

Bonang

Gong

Slentem

Siter

Saron

Rebab

Javanese Arts and Culture; Dance

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By Beauty and Spa management · December 4, 2010

Arabic Arts and Culture;Defination of Arab

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By Beauty and Spa management · December 4, 2010

Arab people are an ethnic group whose members identify as such on one or more of linguistic, cultural, political, or genealogical grounds. Those self-identifying as Arab, however, rarely do so with it as their sole identity. Most hold multiple identities, with a more localized prioritized national identity — such as Egyptian, Lebanese, or Palestinian — in addition to further tribal, village and clan identities.

Arabic culture and language, however, began a more limited diffusion before the Islamic age, first spreading in West Asia beginning in the 2nd century, as Arab Christians.